Louis Pasteur is rightly considered as a great benefactor t mankind. His
research work brought a revolution in the Medical Science. His research work can
be undertaken as follows.
The idea of spontaneous generation was common before Pasteur. The idea
was that living thing could be produced from the dead matter. Many scientists
were in favour of the idea but Pasteur rejected it he, on the basis of his
experiments, proved conclusively that the germ could not be produced from dead
matter. The French Academy offered a reward to him for the solution of this
problem. His work on spontaneous generation was of great significance because it
stimulate other scientists to study the habits of germs and much of our modern
knowledge of these invisible sprang from Pasteurís work.
In 1870, when France and Germany were at war with each other, he desired
to be enrolled as a soldier but was not selected on physical grounds. His love
for France prompted him to take up the study of brewing and fermentation. He
discovered a method by which France might produce beer as good as that
manufactured in Germany. Due to his work, it was thought that inflammation of
the wounds might be a type of fermentation. He also explained how fermentation
could be avoided.
Growing silkworm was a thriving home industry in the South of France. The
family of nearly every farmer was intact with this industry. The women used to
take great interest in rearing and tending the worms because these were a major
source of income to the family. In 1849, the moths were attacked by a disease
that killed many of them. Much effort was made to cope with the situation but
all in vain. Them Pasteur was asked to probe into the matter. So he closely
studied the cause of the disease and finally concluded that germs were
responsible for all that. He directed the worm-breeders to avoid over-crowding
of the moths, uncleanness, over-heating and unhealthy conditions as these
weakened the insects and made them more liable to the disease. His work saved
France and the farmers began to prosper again.
VACCINE PREPARATION AND THE TREATMENT OF HYDROPHOBIA (RABIES)
In 1877, Pasture started research on cattle disease ďAnthrax.Ē He
proved that the disease was also due to germs so he developed a method to
prevent the disease. He inoculated weak germs of the disease in the bodies of
cattle. Due to this, antibodies were produced in their blood that could save the
animals from the active germs of disease. This method was called vaccination.
The first human disease to which Pasteur applied vaccination was hydrophobia
(Rabies). This disease is caused by the bite of the mad dog. The symptoms of the
disease are very drastic. These are spasm, restlessness, shudders at the least
breath of air, an ardent thirst, great fear of water, etc. Pasteur prepared a
vaccine for the disease. He took nervous tissue of am animal that had died of
the disease and exposed it to dry air to weaken the germs.
In 1885, a boy who had been bitten by a mad dog was brought to Pasteur.
He inoculated the weak germs in his body for ten days continuously. The boy was
perfectly cured by this method. Then a large number of victims were also cured
very successfully by vaccination. Afterwards, this method greatly helped the
doctors in controlling over the diseases like, small-pox, diphtheria, cholera,
typhoid fever and plague.
Pasteurís work on the diseases of both man and animals is so valuable
that the entire world is deeply obliged to him. The French Government and the
people of his country honored him during his life. The people from all parts of
the world raised funds for building Pasteur institute in Paris. He paid yeoman
services in the field of medicine and at last continuous hard work claimed his
life. He died I 1895 and was buried in the institute that was built in his honor
to pay him tributes.
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